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Land subsidence in Bangkok, Thailand
Land subsidence from deep well pumping has been affecting Bangkok for the past 35 years. Its impact is particularly critical because of the flat low-lying topography and the presence of a thick soft clay layer at the ground surface that augment flood risk and foundation engineering problems, respectively. The subsidence reached its most critical state in the early 1980s when it occurred at a rate as high as 120 mm/year. The rate decreased in the subsequent period but the subsidence-affected area expanded following the growth of the city. Despite various attempts implemented to remedy the crisis, groundwater pumping from the thick aquifer system underneath the city continued to increase from 1.2 million m3/day in the early 1980s to more than 2.0 million m3/day at the turn of the century. Piezometric levels in the main aquifer layers had been drawn down by as much as 65 m. Monitoring data showed a clear correlation between the subsidence and piezometric drawdown. The data suggested that for 1 m3 of groundwater pumped out in Bangkok Plain, approximately 0.10 m3 of ground loss occurred at the surface. Significant development has been made in numerical methods for prediction of differential settlements between building foundations caused by the piezometric drawdown in the aquifers. The strict mitigation measures adopted recently, comprising a pricing policy for groundwater management, an expansion of tap water supply, and strict enforcement of groundwater l
ISSN : 0013-7952 CODEN : EGGOAO
Engineering geology A. 2006, vol. 82, n° 4, pp. 187-201 [15 pages] [bibl. : 30 ref.]
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