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Color filter array for CCD and CMOS image sensors using a chemically amplified, thermally cured, pre-dyed, positive-tone photoresist for 365 nm lithography
MILLER Harris R.
"On-chip" color filters are commonly used to convert monochromatic, solid-state image sensors into color sensors because they offer a good compromise between cost and resolution for digital cameras. The color filters are fabricated directly onto the surface of the CMOS or CCD image sensor, which generates a mosaic array of pixel-size filter elements. Diazonaphthoquinone (DNQ)-novolac photoresist is used to produce these filters by successively depositing and patterning each color layer. The choice of colors can vary from additive (R,G,B) to subtractive (C,M,Y) or combinations of both. Many of the imaging dyes incorporated in the photoresist interfere by absorbing the same wavelengths of UV radiation required for exposing and patterning the photoresist itself. This unwanted absorption reduces photosensitivity and makes exposure times long and impractical. Pre-dyed photoresists have now been chemically amplified and the exposure times for 365 nm lithography have been reduced, which allows for the fabrication of color pixels as small as 1 micron or less. Photoacid generators incorporated into the pre-dyed photoresist are used to accelerate development in aqueous tetamethyl-ammoniumhydroxide (TMAH) while maintaining a stable photoresist composition with good shelf-life at room temperature. Because the DNQ-novolac photoresist is positive-tone, the patterned photoresist and dye combination must be stabilized by baking or some other means before coating the next colored photoresist.
Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
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