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Novel methods for identification and quantification of the mushroom nephrotoxin orellanine. Thin-layer chromatography and electrophoresis screening of mushrooms with electron spin resonance determination of the toxin
Orellanine, (2,2'-bipyridine)-3,3',4,4'-tetrol-1,1'-dioxide, the toxin from several Cortinariaceœ species, induces an acute renal failure which can be very severe or even irreversible and fatal. It is therefore important to be able to quickly and simply identify orellanine in mushroom samples with classical methods, readily available in any laboratory, such as anti-poison centers. This article reports the results of three analytical methods: classical TLC on cellulose plates in n-butanol-acetic acid-water and two original methods, electrophoresis on agarose gel and direct electron spin resonance (ESR) after enzymatic oxidation. They were applied to detect orellanine in 34 Cortinariaceæ and 4 other species of toadstools. Our three sets of results are convergent. TLC (detection limit: 15 ng with fluorescence densitometry), electrophoresis (25 ng) and even ESR (5 μg), are sensitive enough for our purpose, and a sophisticated method like HPLC (detection limit: 50 pg) is not required. As the ESR spectrum of the toxin semiquinone is highly specific, TLC or electrophoresis coupled with ESR are a convenient alternative to liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, with the same specificity, for a confirmation or with samples such as ours with high toxin contents. ESR unambiguously confirms the relatively high contents of orellanine, from 0.45% (C. henrici) to 1.1-1.4% (C. orellanus), found in five Cortinarius from the subgenus Leprocybe, section Orellani. The five speci
PMID : 9181972 ISSN : 0021-9673 CODEN : JOCRAM
Journal of chromatography A. 1997, vol. 758, n° 1, pp. 145-157 [bibl. : 17 ref.]
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