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Surface cleaning, electronic states and electron affinity of diamond(100), (111) and (110) surfaces
The effects of cleaning natural type llb diamond (100), (111) and (110) samples by annealing and hydrogen - or deuterium plasma exposure were investigated by means of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). Different wet chemical cleaning processes (a conventional chromic acid clean and an electrochemical etch) and a H plasma exposure have been employed to clean natural type IIb semiconducting diamond C(100) wafers. The effects of these processes on the diamond surface have been assessed and compared. As evidenced by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), an oxygen free surface could be obtained following vacuum annealing to 900 C for the electrochemical process compared to 1050°C for the chromic acid etch. In addition, the technique of atomic force microscopy demonstrated the presence of oriented pits on the surface of samples that were electrochemically etched for long times at high currents. After a H plasma exposure the negative electron affinity (NEA) peak in the UPS spectra doubled in intensity. An anneal to 1100°C resulted in the removal of the sharp NEA feature. A second H plasma treatment resulted in the reappearance of the NEA peak similar to that after the first H plasma exposure. A (2× 1) reconstructed low energy electron diffraction pattern was observed subsequent to the anneals as well as the H plasma treatments. The fact that a NEA can be induced or removed repeatedly by means of a H plasma exposure or annealing at 1100°C, respectively, provides evidence
Elsevier Science; Elsevier Science; Elsevier Science
ISSN : 0039-6028 CODEN : SUSCAS
Surface science A. 1998, vol. 409, n° 2, pp. 320-335 [bibl. : 33 ref.]
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