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Titre du Document
The effects of pH on fluoxetine in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) : Acute toxicity in fish larvae and bioaccumulation in juvenile fish
Auteur(s)
NAKAMURA Yuki ; YAMAMOTO Hiroshi ; SEKIZAWA Jun ; ...
Résumé
Recent detection of fluoxetine in the aquatic environment and fish suggests a possibly high accumulation of fluoxetine; however, no report is available on the bioaccumulation of fluoxetine in aquatic organisms. Since bioaccumulation of fluoxetine was probably dependent on pH near the pKa value of 10.1, experiments were conducted approximately at pH 7, 8, and 9. Distribution coefficients between 1-octanol and water (Dow), and those between synthetic membrane vesicles (liposomes) and water (Dlip-wat) were determined at pH 7, 8, and 9. The Dow and Dlip-wat values increased significantly with increasing pH. Acute toxicity tests were performed using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) prior to the bioaccumulation test, and 96-h LC50 values were 5.5, 1.3, and 0.20 mg 1-1 at pH 7, 8, and 9, respectively. In the bioaccumulation test, concentrations of fluoxetine and its major metabolite, norfluoxetine, in the fish body and liver were measured. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) of fluoxetine for Japanese medaka were 8.8, 3.0 × 10, and 2.6 × 102 in the body and 3.3 × 102, 5.8 × 102, and 3.1 x 103 in the liver at pH 7, 8, and 9, respectively. The BCF values were lower at pH 7 and higher at pH 9 mainly because of the increase in nonionized species with significantly higher hydrophobicity than the ionized species at pH values closer to pKa. A similar trend was obtained for the concentration of norfluoxetine in the
Editeur
Elsevier
Identifiant
PMID : 17765944 ISSN : 0045-6535 CODEN : CMSHAF
Source
Chemosphere (Oxford) A. 2008, vol. 70, n° 5, pp. 865-873 [9 pages] [bibl. : 1/2 p.]
Langue
Anglais
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