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Staling of bread: Role of amylose and amylopectin and influence of starch-degrading enzymes
The present investigation aims at understanding the mechanism of bread firming during staling. Changes in the starch fraction due to the addition of amylases and their influence on the texture of bread crumb were studied during aging and after rebaking of stale bread. Pan bread was prepared by a conventional baking procedure. The influence of three different starch-degrading enzymes, a conventional α-amylase, a maltogenic α-amylase, and a β-amylase were investigated. The mechanical properties of bread were followed by uniaxial compression measurements. The microstructure was investigated by light microscopy, and starch transformations were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray powder diffraction. Firming of bread crumb and crystallization of starch are not necessarily in agreement in systems with added amylases. Reorganization of both starch fractions, amylopectin and amylose, and the increase of starch network rigidity due to increase of polymer order are important during aging. Starch-degrading enzymes act by decreasing the structural strength of the starch phase; for instance, by preventing the recrystallization of amylopectin or by reducing the connectivity between crystalline starch phases. On the other hand, starch-degrading enzymes may also promote the formation of a partly crystalline amylose network and, by this, contribute to a kinetic stabilization of the starch network. Based on the results, a model for bread staling is propos
American Association of Cereal Chemists
ISSN : 0009-0352 CODEN : CECHAF
Cereal chemistry A. 2003, vol. 80, n° 6, pp. 654-661 [8 pages] [bibl. : 41 ref.]
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